Find out more about hybrid offshore connections

The CORDOBA project, which focuses on sustainable design and operation of hybrid offshore connections and offshore grids, will end at the end of December. Several scientific publications have already been published on the project.
30 November 2023

Below you will find a number of recent publications that are related to and/or inspired by the CORDOBA project. We wish you a lot of reading pleasure!

Scientific publications

The CORDOBA project aims to address several challenges related to the planning of new hybrid offshore connections and grids. The aim is to develop practical strategies to achieve the European Union's ambitious objectives with regard to offshore wind in the North Sea.

To better disseminate the findings of this project, two scientific publications have been produced: "Optimal Grid Layouts for Hybrid Offshore Assets in the North Sea under Different Market Designs", and "A Methodology for Offshore Transmission System Optimization Considering Spatial Constraints".

Dive into the aforementioned publications:

Optimal Grid Layouts for Hybrid Offshore Assets in the North Sea under Different Market Designs

This paper looks into the difficulties of planning offshore networks under different market mechanisms, including home market design, zonal offshore bidding zone, and nodal offshore bidding zone.

The study attempts to answer two crucial questions: is prior knowledge of the market structure essential to efficiently plan an expansion of energy generation and transmission, and which market mechanism increases overall social welfare the most?

To answer these questions, a stochastic formulation for multi-period planning has been developed, taking into account the costs and benefits to stakeholders of hybrid offshore infrastructure and gross consumer surplus.

The study concludes that although it is not strictly necessary to know the market structure in advance, good planning is strongly recommended as it leads to the highest overall social welfare and the most favorable risk-adjusted returns.

Social welfare is more influenced by market structure than by network topology, suggesting that it is important to optimally distribute benefits among stakeholders rather than overly focusing on designing the ideal topology.

Check out the publication

This publication was published in IEEE Transactions on Energy Markets.

A Methodology for Offshore Transmission System Optimization Considering Spatial Constraints

This paper introduces an approach to optimise offshore wind transmission networks that includes a three-dimensional spatial representation considering multiple onshore connection points, bathymetry and exclusion zones.

The model takes into account capital expenditures and operational costs, including electrical losses, corrective maintenance and expected energy not transferred.

The methodology integrates an original algorithm for offshore substation placement, a combinatorial search algorithm and a mixed integer linear programming model.

Two simplified versions of the full three-dimensional model are presented to facilitate the handling of large-scale test cases.

The publication highlights the importance of increasing the accuracy of the infrastructure selection process using carefully selected constraints, and illustrates this by incorporating bathymetric data and maritime spatial planning when assessing potential offshore substation locations.

Check out the publication

This publication was presented at the 2023 IEEE Powertech Conference in Serbia, and was included in the conference proceedings.

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As part of his PhD research, Stephen Hardy has conducted research into mathematical optimisation models for the further development of the offshore wind sector. The research was funded under two projects: CORDOBA and InnoDC. The result of this research can be found in his dissertation:

Cost Effective Expansion Planning: Mathematical optimization models to support large scale offshore wind deployment

This thesis presents a novel and comprehensive approach to offshore wind expansion planning that addresses the challenges of integrating different energy market models and considers the objectives of all stakeholders involved, from private investors to regulated entities. 

The proposed methodology fills a critical gap in the existing planning models and provides a valuable tool for the effective long-term planning of offshore generation and transmission infrastructure in the North Sea, which is key for the efficient development of Europe’s offshore wind resources and the achievement of our climate commitments.

Check out the publication

This dissertation was published in June 2023 within the scope of obtaining the degree of Doctor of Engineering Science (PhD): Electrical Engineering.


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